Some diseases that are not common in Australia, are present in Brazil, such as typhoid and hepatitis A. Vaccinations against these diseases are recommended. In addition, depending on where you are going in Brazil and what activities you are undertaking, vaccinations against hepatitis B and yellow fever, and preventative medication for malaria may also be required. If you have travelled to Brazil, you may be asked to present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate by border control when you come back into Australia.
Find out everything you need to know about vaccine-preventable diseases.
Other vaccine-preventable diseases
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that all travellers are up-to-date with their routine vaccinations including measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, chicken pox and influenza. These vaccinations are given as part of the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For a full list please refer to the NIP schedule, available here. In some cases, you may need a booster or re-vaccination against a disease to ensure you still have immunity.
Travellers to Brazil who are aged 5 years or older should also ensure they are fully vaccinated against COVID-19.
Although vaccines for cholera are available, routine vaccination is generally not recommended for cholera and is not an official entry requirement for any country. Vaccination may be considered for special cases, such as people with some existing medical conditions, or those working in humanitarian relief or natural disaster areas.
Before and during travel to high-risk countries: 7
- seek advice from a travel medical clinic or an experienced general practitioner on how to protect yourself from cholera and other diarrhoeal illnesses
- regularly wash hands with soap and water
- drink only water that has been boiled or disinfected with iodine or chlorine tablets. Carbonated bottled drinks are usually safe (if no ice is added)
- eat freshly prepared and/or hot food, and avoid eating raw foods or vegetables (unless they can be peeled)
- always practice good food handling procedures.
The standard of healthcare facilities in Vietnam varies from place to place. So it is important you a prepared before heading off on your trip.
See your doctor at least 4 weeks before departure to discuss your travel health requirements.
- Register your trip with Smart Traveller
- Make sure you have enough of your regular prescription medicines;
- Ensure you’re up-to-date with your routine vaccinations
- Take out travel insurance - to cover you and your family for medical and other costs resulting from unexpected incidents and accidents
- Put together a travel kit with medication for pain, diarrhoeal medicine, oral rehydration salts, antiseptic lotion or ointment, adhesive bandages and other wound dressings, insect repellent, sunscreen, latex gloves, thermometer, motion sickness medicine, water purification tablets and compression stockings
- The tap water in Vietnam is not safe to drink.
- Drink bottled or filtered water only and check the plastic seal on bottled water is intact (some stores have been known to sell boiled water in recycled bottles). Avoid adding ice to your drinks, and check that salad and fruit have been washed with filtered water prior to consumption.
- Traveller's diarrhoea is common in Vietnam.
- Important ways to prevent traveller’s diarrhoea include:
- ensure you wash your hands with soap and water regularly
- where possible, opt for fully cooked fresh food and only eat fruit that you peel yourself.
- avoid mosquito bites, as you may be at risk of contracting illnesses such as Japanese encephalitis (JE) or malaria in some rural parts of Vietnam.
- Speak with your healthcare professional about whether or not you might need medication or vaccination, at least 4 weeks prior to your departure. You can further protect yourself with insect repellent, wearing clothes that cover your arms and legs, and staying in accommodation that has air conditioning, fly nets or screened windows provided.
- Rabies is a deadly disease and considered a risk in Vietnam. It is spread by the bite, lick or scratch of an infected animal, such as a dog or a monkey. Avoid close contact with wild and domestic animals, this is especially important for children. Do not carry food around, or feed/play with monkeys or other animals. Vaccinations for rabies are available – your doctor can advise whether vaccinations are required for your trip.
- Use condoms to prevent sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, human papillomavirus, herpes, syphilis, hepatitis B and HIV.
- Diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B can also be spread through fluids such as blood and semen. To protect yourself, do not inject drugs, do not share needles or devices that can break the skin including those used for tattooing, piercings or acupuncture. Vaccinations are available for hepatitis B.