Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver. People are exposed to the virus generally through food or drink contaminated with faeces (poo), however, close personal contact (e.g. providing personal care) can spread the virus.
Although outbreaks of hepatitis A do occur in Australia, the virus is most commonly contracted overseas, and so travellers should consider vaccination before going overseas Symptoms include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark coloured urine, and abdominal pain. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A – vaccination is the best way to protect yourself against this disease.
For further information regarding vaccination against Hepatitis A, speak with your healthcare professional.
Commonly asked questions
Hepatitis A is a virus which infects and causes inflammation the liver. It causes an acute infection from which almost everyone will fully recover.
Hepatitis A is spread through food or drink contaminated with faeces (poo) and may also be spread by close personal contact such as anal sex. Symptoms are associated with decreased liver function and include fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Hepatitis A is not common in Australia, although outbreaks have been known to occur in some communities. Hepatitis A is common (endemic) to many overseas countries.
Yes. Being exposed to hepatitis A through food or drink contaminated with faeces (poo) is the most common way to contract the virus. Good personal hygiene in general and when preparing food is a way to decrease the spread of the virus.
Hepatitis A is mainly spread via the faecal-oral route, through contact with food, water, or objects contaminated with faeces (poo). Hepatitis A may also be spread by close personal contact (e.g. personal care).
If you have contracted hepatitis A you should avoid close contact with others. The infectious period usually starts two weeks before symptoms appear, and up to a week after jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) appears.
Yes.Hepatitis A is spread from person to person mainly via the faecal-oral route, which is associated with poor personal hygiene and lack of quality sanitation and water purification systems.
You can be exposed to hepatitis A via:
- Contact with contaminated food or drink, or utensils
- Close personal contact, such as sex, may also spread the virus
Hepatitis A can only infect humans.
Symptoms can appear anywhere from 2-4 weeks after contracting the infection, but usually appear around 4 weeks after contracting the infection and onwards. Although symptoms may take some time to appear, the infection can still be passed onto other people during this time.
Some people, especially young children, can have the infection without showing any signs or symptoms. A blood test is the most effective way to identify if you have contracted the virus.
People who do have symptoms may have:
- Abdominal pain
- Dark coloured urine
- Clay (light) coloured stool (poo)
- Jaundice - yellowing of the skin and eyes.
Symptoms may continue for several weeks, but usually last for less than 2 months. In some people, symptoms can last up to 6 months.
Sources & Citations
1. Australian Government, Department of Health. The Australian Immunisation Handbook. Hepatitis A. Available at: https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au/vaccine-preventable-diseases/hepatitis-a (accessed 16 November 2021).
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav/afaq.htm (accessed 16 November 2021).
3. NSW Government. Hepatitis A Fact Sheet. Available at: https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Factsheets/hepatitis-a.pdf (accessed 16 November 2021).
4. World Health Organisation. Hepatitis A. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-a (accessed 16 November 2021).
5. Victoria State Government. Better Health Channel. Hepatitis A. Available at: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hepatitis-a?viewAsPdf=true (accessed 16 November 2021).
6. Australian Government Institute of Health and Welfare. Hepatitis A in Australia. Available at: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/6f006a38-4d3d-4926-b663-28f7b67e1d9f/aihw-phe-236_HepA.pdf.aspx (accessed 16 November 2021).
7. Australian Government Department of Health. Immunisation for Travel. Available at: https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/immunisation/immunisation-throughout-life/immunisation-for-travel (accessed 23 November 2021).
MAT-AU-2102451 Date of preparation December 2021Show All