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What is the difference between meningococcal disease and meningitis?

Page last updated 19 January 2022

While meningococcal disease and meningitis are related, they are not the same thing.

Meningitis refers to an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. You can get meningitis from infection with viruses, bacteria and parasites, as well as other non-infectious causes (e.g. injuries, certain drugs, or conditions like lupus). There are two main types of meningitis:

  • Viral meningitis (relatively common, most cases are mild and rarely fatal)
  • Bacterial meningitis (rare in comparison, but extremely dangerous and can be fatal)

Bacterial meningitis is very serious and requires medical attention as soon as possible. Some common types of bacterial meningitis include:

  • Hib meningitis – caused by Haemophilus influenzae tybe b (Hib) bacterium
  • Meningococcal meningitis – caused by Neisseria meningitidis bacterium
  • Pneumococcal meningitis – caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium

Meningococcal disease refers to a condition caused by the meningococcal bacterium (or, Neisseria meningitidis). Meningococcal disease can include meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord – this lining is called the meninges), and septicaemia (blood poisoning).

Sources & Citations

3. NSW Government. Department of Health. Meningococcal disease factsheet. Available at: (accessed December 2021).

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningitis. Available at: (accessed December 2021).

6. Queensland Government. Meningitis (all types). Available at: (accessed December 2021).


MAT-AU2102477  Date of preparation January 2022